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Thursday, March 15, 2012

Port Of Yokohama, Japan

The Port of Yokohama is the capital of Kanagawa Prefecture on the eastern Pacific coast of Japan. Located on Tokyo Bay about 15 nautical miles southwest of the Port of Tokyo and nine nautical miles west-northwest of the Port of Kisarazu, the Port of Yokohama lies on a plain surrounded by hills and the sea. The Port of Yokohama was a small fishing community until the mid-19th Century when Japan decided to make nearby Kanagawa its major port for foreign trade and residence. In 2005, almost 3.6 million people lived in the Port of Yokohama.

In the late 20th Century, the modern Port of Yokohama was created with the merger of Yokohama and Kanagawa. Together with Kawasaki, the Port of Yokohama forms the hub of the Keihin Industrial Zone and home to ship-builders and manufacturers of chemicals, primary metals, machinery, automobiles, petroleum products, and metal goods. Other important industries include biotechnology and semi-conductors. Nissan Motor Company is planning to move its headquarters to the Port of Yokohamaby 2010. Handling raw material imports for the industrial zone and a variety of exports, the Port of Yokohama is one of the biggest ports in Japan. The city's business district is clustered around the Port of Yokohama.

The Port and Harbor Bureau of the City of Yokohama is the port authority. The City of Yokohama established the Yokohama Port Public Corporation (YPPC) in 2007 to develop and manage container terminals in the Port of Yokohama and to serve as a gateway for international container logistics.
Today, YPPC manages ten container terminals in the Port of Yokohama, two multi-purpose terminals, and eight conventional terminals. The YPPC strives to improve efficiency and convenience for the Port of Yokohama's customers. It also conducts environmental conservation fund activities and accepts soil produced from public works in the city.

The YPPC constructs, leases, and administers international trade terminals and related facilities. It also administers and operates the public container terminals in the Port of Yokohama, including administering the container wharf commissioned by the City of Yokohama. Environmental conservation fund activities include responsibility for conserving the Port of Yokohama marine environment and managing, maintaining, and cultivating aquatic life in the Port of Yokohama.

The Port of Yokohama covers an area of 7.3 thousand hectares and 2.8 thousand hectares of waterfront area. It includes a 975-hectare commercial zone, a 1.7 thousand hectare industrial zone, a 4.2 hectare marina zone, and a 95 hectare recreational zone.

In 2008, the Port of Yokohama served a total of 43.2 thousand ships carrying more than 141.7 million tons of cargo. Vessels in port included 11.3 thousand ocean-going ships, 5.5 thousand full container ships, and 31.9 thousand costal vessels. The Port of Yokohama handled 91.7 million tons of foreign cargo, including 46.9 million tons of exports and 44.8 million tons of imports. Domestic cargoes through the Port of Yokohama totaled 50.1 million tons, including 2.4 million tons of containerized cargo in 277.6 TEUs.

In 2008, the Port of Yokohama handled a total of 3.5 million TEUs and 52.5 million tons of containerized cargo, over 70% of which was handled by the YPPC. The Port of Yokohama handled a total of 50 million tons of foreign containerized cargo in 3.2 million TEUs. This included 25.9 million tons of exports in 1.7 million TEUs and 24.1 million tons of imports in 1.5 million TEUs.

Foreign cargoes through the Port of Yokohama included 46.9 million tons of exports and 44.8 million tons of imports. Metals and machinery was the biggest foreign export category (33.6 million tons). Single largest foreign cargo was 16.4 million tons of finished automobile exports, included in metals and machinery category.

Exports of automobile parts accounted for another 6.4 million tons of cargo. Other foreign exports included chemical industrial products (4.4 million tons); miscellaneous industrial products (2.5 million tons); light industrial products (1.2 million tons); and agricultural, stock farm, and aquatic products (1 million tons); and other cargoes (3.7 million tons). The Port of Yokohama also exported smaller volumes of forest and mineral products.

The biggest import category in the Port of Yokohama in 2008 for foreign cargoes was chemical industrial products (12 million tons), including 7 million tons of liquefied natural gas). Other foreign imports included mineral products (7.9 million tons); agricultural, stock farm, and aquatic products (6.1 million tons); miscellaneous industrial products (4.1 million tons); light industrial products (4 million tons); forest products (1 million tons); and other cargoes (3.4 million tons).

Domestic cargoes through the Port of Yokohama totaled 50.1 million tons, including 21.2 million tons of outgoing cargoes and 28.9 million tons of incoming cargoes. The Port of Yokohama handled domestic cargoes primarily consisting of mineral products (18.7 million tons), chemical industrial products (15.7 million tons), and metals and machinery (9.3 million tons). Mineral products included 10.9 million tons of incoming crude oil., and chemical industrial products included outgoing shipments of heavy fuel oil (4.2 million tons) and petroleum products (4.2 million tons). Domestic cargoes included 4.9 million tons of finished automobiles with almost equal volumes of ingoing and outgoing traffic.

The Minami Honmoku Pier is the first/last port on the trade routes with North America, and it is the closest pier in the Port of Yokohama to Tokyo Bay. The Port of Yokohama's container terminals are located near the mouth of Tokyo Bay for the convenience of foreign shippers.

The Hinami Honmoku Pier is a deep-water pier built with very deep quays that do not have to be dredged to maintain their depth; therefore, they can accommodate the largest container vessels. The Honmoku Pier is only five minutes from the Tokyo Bayshore Expressway, the Yoko-Hane Expressway, and the Tomei Expressway.

The Yokohama Port Public Corporation (YPPC) operates six container terminals at the Hanmoku Pier. These Port of Yokohama terminals cover a total area of 596 thousand square meters, and the quays vary from 300 meters to 250 meters in length. The four public terminals at the Hanmoku Pier cover a total 663.3 thousand square meters. The four wharves contain nine quays. The largest, Quay BC-1, is 390 meters with alongside depth of 15 meters. Quays C-5 through C-9 are each 200 meters long with alongside depth of 13 meters. Quays D-1 and D-2 are each 200 meters long, and Quay D-3 is 220 meters long. All D Quays have alongside depth of 11 meters.

YPPC operates two Port of Yokohama container terminals at the Minami Honmoku Pier. The terminals cover a total of 404 thousand square meters. Each quay (MC-1 and MC-2) is 350 meters long with alongside depth of 16 meters. Two additional terminals are planned or under construction. Quays MC-3 and MC-4 will each be 400 meters long with alongside depth of 16 meters.

The two YPPC Container Terminals at the Kaikoku Pier in the Port of Yokohama cover a total area of 328.5 thousand square meters. Both quays (C-3 and C-4) are 350 meters long with alongside depth of 15 meters. The public terminal at the Kaikoku Pier (T-9) covers 35.4 thousand square meters, and the quay is 240 meters long with alongside depth of 12 meters.

The YPPC operates two multi-purpose terminals (C-1 and C-2) at the Port of Yokohama's Kaikoku Pier that cover a total area of 210 thousand square meters. Each quay is 300 meters long. Quay C-1 has alongside depth of 12 meters, and Quay C-2 has alongside depth of 13 meters.

The Port of Yokohama's YPPC also operates eight conventional liner terminals (L-1 through L-8) at the Kaikoku Pier that cover a total area of 145 thousand square meters. Each terminal except L-4 covers 18 thousand square meters. Terminal L-4 covers 19 thousand square meters. Each of the eight quays is 200 meters long with alongside depth of 10 meters. Terminal L-2 also has a storage shed.

The Port of Yokohama is working on a project to create an area for people to meet and enjoy recreational water sports in a natural setting. The Yokohama Bayside Marina District will provide sufficient space for about 1500 pleasure boats, with eventual capacity for 2000 boats. The Port of Yokohama is planning marina-related facilities, restaurants, commercial attractions, green areas, and a promenade along the shoreline. Land is also being reclaimed for businesses and infrastructure like roads and green areas. The third-party Yokohama Bayside Marina Corporation, partly owned by the City of Yokohama, will construct and manage the marina facilities, and additional facilities are being developed by private interests. The marina will be located at the now-defunct Kanazawa Timber Pier, an attractive location convenient to both the Yokohama Hakkeijima Island and the Uminokoen Marine Park.

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