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Saturday, December 10, 2011

Port Of Long Beach, USA

The Port of Long Beach is located in Los Angeles County, California, and it is the second largest city in the LA metropolitan area about nine kilometers east-northeast of the Port of Los Angeles and about 90 kilometers northwest of the Port of San Diego. Lying on the shores of San Pedro Bay, the Port of Long Beach is connected to Los Angeles harbor by the Los Cerritos Channel, and it is one of the world's busiest ports. In 2006, over 472 thousand people lived in the Port of Long Beach, and almost 13 million people lived in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area.

The Port of Long Beach economy is diverse, with manufacturing, services, oil refining, food processing, and marine research as its dominant sectors. The Port of Long Beach's largest employers include Boeing, Gulfstream Aerospace, and Verizon. There are also several major hospitals in the Port of Long Beach that employ thousands of people. Government and educational institutions are also important employers in the Port of Long Beach. The Monster Garage cable TV show is filmed in the Port of Long Beach, and Jesse James' West Coast Choppers is located there.

 

The Los Angeles Dock and Terminal Company declared bankruptcy in 1916 and turned over their projects to the City of Long Beach, which then completed dredging the channels and turning basin. In 1917, the Port of Long Beach Board of Harbor Commissioners was created to supervise harbor operations.

By 1926, the Port of Long Beach won deep water port status. It welcomed more than 800 vessels and handled over a million tons of cargo. In 1928, the Port of Long Beach began to build more piers, wharves, and port facilities. The Municipal Wharf, Pier One, was built, and Piers A and B were started in the outer harbor.

The Federal River and Harbor Act authorized the building of a 5.6-kilometer extension to the Port of Long Beach's San Pedro Bay breakwater in 1930. In 1931, the City Charter was amended to create a Board of Harbor Commissioners, a Harbor District, and a Harbor Department. In 1936, oil was discovered in the Port of Long Beach harbor, and the first oil well brought new oil revenues to the city and port by 1938.

During the first half of the 20th Century, the Port of Long Beach was home to a large Japanese-American community. The people worked on Terminal Island in the fish canneries and on small truck farms. In 1942, however, the Japanese-Americans and Japanese residents of the Port of Long Beach were moved to internment camps during World War II. Few returned to the Port of Long Beach after the end of the war.

In 1943, more than a hundred oil wells in the Port of Long Beach harbor produced 17 thousand barrels a day, bringing $10 million in oil revenues to the city and Port of Long Beach each year. However, by 1945, the consequences of oil extraction had become a major concern for the Port of Long Beach.

In 1943, the US Naval Dry Docks were established at the Port of Long Beach to maintain and repair tankers, cargo ships, destroyers, cruisers, and troop transports during World War II. In 1945, the dry docks employed more than 16 thousand civilians. Also in 1945, it became the Long Beach Naval Shipyard (NSY) in 1948. Over the years, the Port of Long Beach NSY boasted several major accomplishments including projects supporting programs like SEALAB, POSEIDON, and POLARIS. The Port of Long Beach NSY closed in 1997.

In 1946, the Port of Long Beach became "America's most modern port" when the first clear-span transit sheds were completed at Pier F. Pierpoint Landing opened on Pier F in 1948 and quickly became the world's biggest sport-fishing operation, receiving more than two million fishers per year.

By 1957, shifting of the surface downwards (subsidence) due to oil and gas exploitation caused over four thousand hectares in the north harbor to sink by as much as seven meters. Operation Big Squirt began in 1960 and stopped the subsidence problem.

In 1967, the Port of Long Beach bought the world-famous British trans-Atlantic liner, the Queen Mary, and moored in the harbor as a maritime museum, hotel, and conference center adjoining the Long Beach Convention and Entertainment center.

In 1973, the Port of Long Beach was awarded the Environmental "E" Award by the American Association of Port Authorities for its efforts to protect and improve the environment. The Port of Long Beach was the first harbor in the Western Hemisphere to receive this award. In 1974, the United States Department of Commerce recognized the Port of Long Beach with the E-Star Award for its efforts to encourage and facilitate exports.
From the early 1980s until the early 1990s, the Port of Long Beach displayed Howard Hughes' historic Spruce Goose airplane before it was moved to Portland, Oregon. The huge building that held the plane then became a movie studio.

In 1994, the Port of Long Beach signed an operating agreement with the Port of Los Angeles and the Santa Fe, Pacific and Union Pacific railroads to operate a 32-kilometer train and truck expressway from the ports to the transcontinental rail yards in Los Angeles.

In 1998, the non-profit Aquarium of the Pacific opened in the downtown Port of Long Beach. Over 13 million people have visited the aquarium since then, and it has been ranked the number two family destination in Los Angeles, second to Disneyland, by the Zagat U.S. Family Travel Guide. The Aquarium was the first museum, zoo, or aquarium to become a Climate Action Leader for voluntarily addressing green house gas emissions.


Under the city government, the Long Beach Board of Harbor Commissioners is the port authority for the Port of Long Beach. The Board is responsible for promoting, developing, and setting policy for the Port of Long Beach and for managing the Harbor Department.

The Port of Long Beach handled 157.1 million tons of cargo in 2008. Its municipal berths handled a total of 156.6 million tons of cargo in 2008, including 115.1 million tons of inbound cargo (99.6 million tons of foreign cargo) and 41.5 million tons of outbound cargo (36.0 million tons of foreign cargo). Private berths handled a total of 543.8 thousand tons of cargo. In 2008 the Port of Long Beach handled a total of almost 6.5 million TEUs of containerized cargo, including 3.2 million inbound loaded containers, 1.7 million outbound loaded containers, and 1.6 million empty containers.

The Port of Long Beach covers almost 1.3 thousand hectares of land and contains ten piers with 80 berths that are served by 71 post-Panamax gantry cranes. The Port of Long Beach's major trading partners are located in East Asia, accounting for over 90% of the shipments passing through the port. The Port of Long Beach's top trading partners include China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Malaysia. Outside East Asia, the Port of Long Beach also has strong trade relationships with Mexico, Iraq, and Ecuador.

The major imports received in the Port of Long Beach include crude oil, electronics, plastics, furniture, and clothing. The major exports leaving the Port of Long Beach include petroleum coke, refined petroleum, waste paper, foods, and chemicals.

The Port of Long Beach has seven main container terminals. California United Terminals operates Berths E24 through E26 at the Port of Long Beach's Pier E. The terminal covers a total 38.4 hectares and contains 640 meters of berths with alongside depth of 14.6 meters. The terminal has two roll-on/roll-off ramps and one stern ramp. It includes 23.4 hectares of open storage area in the Port of Long Beach and handles containerized cargoes. The storage space has capacity for 14.4 TEUs, and it has 2500 FEU chassis slots and 400 reefer outlets.

Handling general cargo in containers, the Port of Long Beach's Pier T Berths T132 through T140 is operated by Total Terminals International. The terminal covers 155.8 hectares and contains 1.5 kilometers of berths with alongside depth of 16.8 meters. This Port of Long Beach terminal contains 108.1 hectares of open storage areas that include 1850 reefer outlets and on-dock rail with capacity for four trains.

Also handling general cargo in containers at the Port of Long Beach, International Transportation Service operates the terminal at Pier G, Berths G226 through G236. The terminal covers 99.6 hectares and contains over 1.9 kilometers of berths with alongside depths from 11 to 12.8 meters. This Port of Long Beach terminal contains 35 hectares of open storage with capacity for 12.8 thousand TEUs, including 384 reefer outlets and 4000 TEU chassis slots. The terminal has a Container Freight Station of 6.5 thousand square meters and on-dock rail service.

The Port of Long Beach Container Terminal, at Berths F6 through F10 at Pier F, covers an area of 41.3 hectares and contains 838 meters of berths with alongside depth of 15.2 meters. The terminal contains almost 30 hectares of open storage area and capacity for ten thousand TEUs, including 240 reefer outlets, 3600 FEU chassis slots, and 504 FEU chassis stacked vertically. The terminal is served by on-dock rail transfer facilities.
The Pacific Container Terminal at the Port of Long Beach is operated by Pacific Maritime Services, and it handles general cargo in containers. The terminal is located at Pier J, Berths J243 through J247 and Berths J266 through J270. Covering an area of 103.6 hectares in the Port of Long Beach, the terminal contains almost 1.8 kilometers of berths with alongside depths from 12.8 to 15.2 meters. The terminal has capacity to store 6228 TEU imports and offers complete reefer container service. It also offers an on-dock rail container transfer facility.

At Pier A, Berths A88 through A96, SSAT Long Beach LLC operates the SSA Terminals at the Port of Long Beach, handling general cargo in containers. The terminal covers almost 81 hectares and contains over one kilometer of berths with alongside depth of 15.2 meters. The terminal includes 36.4 hectares of open storage area served by an on-dock rail yard that can have two 2.4 thousand meter stack trains operating at the same time. This Port of Long Beach terminal has capacity for storing 24 thousand TEUs and is equipped with 652 reefer outlets.

The Port of Long Beach's SSA Terminals also has facilities at Pier C, Berths C60 through C62, that handle automobiles and general cargo in containers. The terminal covers 28.3 hectares and contains 549 meters of berths with alongside depth of 12.8 meters. The terminal includes 23.2 hectares of open storage area in the Port of Long Beach with capacity for 4000 grounded TEUs. It contains 1384 40-foot chassis slots, 2014 FEU stacked, and 114 spaces for reefer boxes. The terminal also has another seven hectares used as an off-dock container yard.

The Port of Long Beach has seven major terminals for dry bulk cargoes. Handling gypsum, G-P Gypsum operates the terminal at the Port of Long Beach's Pier D, Berth D46. The terminal covers 3.6 hectares and has 195 meters of berths with alongside depth of 12.2 meters.

Also handling bulk gypsum at Pier B, Berth B82, New NGC Inc. operates the National Gypsum terminal in the Port of Long Beach. The terminal covers 7.6 hectares and has 198 meters of berths with alongside depth of 11.6 meters. This Port of Long Beach terminal contains 0.6 hectares of open storage area and is equipped with an elevated electric belt conveyor system that extends to a 40-thousand tons capacity storage building.

Koch Carbon operates a terminal at the Port of Long Beach's Pier F, Berth F211 that handles petroleum coke and prilled sulfur. The terminal covers over 2.8 hectares and has 335 meters of berths with alongside depth of 12.2 meters. The terminal has 2.7 hectares of open storage area in the Port of Long Beach that receives, stores, blends, and loads petroleum coke. It also offers terminal services for both imports and exports of prilled sulfur and other bulk cargoes.

Metro Ports operates the Port of Long Beach terminal at Pier G, Berths G212 through G215, handling petroleum coke, coal, soda ash, borax, potash, sodium sulfate, concentrates, and prilled sulfur. The terminal covers 9.3 hectares and includes 579 meters of berths with alongside depth of 15.2 meters.

The Port of Long Beach's Pier F, Berth F208, is operated by Mitsubishi Cement Corporation, handling bulk cement. The terminal covers 1.7 hectares and contains 168 meters of berths with alongside depth of 12 meters.
Also handling cargoes of bulk cement in the Port of Long Beach, CEMEX USA operates the terminal at Pier D, Berth D32. The terminal covers 0.8 hectares and contains 270 meters of berths with alongside depth of 11 meters. The terminal includes over 8.1 thousand square meters of open storage area and has silo capacity for 50 thousand tons.

Handling bulk salt, the Port of Long Beach's Pier F, Berth210, is operated by Morton Salt Company. The terminal covers over two hectares and contains 213 meters of berths with alongside depth of 12.2 meters. It includes 1.1 hectares of open storage area, and a packaging plant is adjacent to this Port of Long Beach terminal.

The Port of Long Beach also has seven major terminals for handling liquid bulk cargoes. At the Port of Long Beach's Pier D, Berths D30 and D31, Baker Commodities operates the terminal handling tallow, coconut oil, and cottonseed oil. The terminal covers 0.4 hectares and contains 213 meters of berths with alongside depth of 13 meters. Two six-inch pipelines link Berth D30 to storage tanks with capacity for 6.7 million gallons of cargo. The terminal is served by rail tracks.

Handling crude oil and petroleum products in the Port of Long Beach, BP Pipelines, North America, operates the terminal at Pier T, Berth T121. The terminal covers over 2.4 hectares and contains 347 meters of berths with alongside depth of 23 meters. The terminal can accommodate vessels from 50- to 265-thousand DWT. Storage tanks are provided at the ARCO facilities in Carson and in the Port of Long Beach's inner harbor via pipelines.
BP Pipelines, North America, also operates the Port of Long Beach terminal at Pier B, Berths B76 through B80. The terminal handles petroleum products that include gasoline, blending stocks, MtBE, diesel, naphtha jet fuel, fuel oils, carbon black, and crude oil. The terminal covers almost 7.3 hectares and contains 671 meters of berths with alongside depth of 14 meters. The facility has capacity to store 1.8 million barrels and is connected to other companies by several pipelines. It can load/unload three vessels at the same time.

Handling petroleum products and bunker fuel, Chemoil Marine Terminal is located at the Port of Long Beach's Pier F, Berths F209 and F211. The terminal covers over two hectares, and it contains 244 meters of berths with alongside depth of 13 meters. The facility can store 425 thousand barrels and is equipped with a pipeline system serving ships, barges, trucks, and railcars. It also has pipeline connections to the Carson tank farm and is served by rail.

Petro-Diamond Terminal Company operates the terminal at the Port of Long Beach's Pier B, Berths B82 and B83. Handling gasoline, ethanol, blend stocks, diesel, and biodiesel, the terminal covers over 2.4 hectares and contains 323 meters of berths with alongside depth of 11.6 meters. Pipeline connections to this Port of Long Beach terminal allow petroleum products to be transferred to most Los Angeles basin refiners and common carrier pipelines. The terminal has total storage capacity for 590 thousand barrels.

Handling crude oil, petroleum products, and bunker fuel, Tesoro Refining and Marketing operates the Port of Long Beach terminal at Pier B, Berths B84 through B87. The terminal covers over 4.4 hectares and contains 604 meters of berths with alongside depth of 15.8 meters. The terminal can discharge 32 thousand barrels per hour and can store up to 245 thousand barrels.

The Vopak Terminal Long Beach, operated by Vopak North America, handles miscellaneous liquid bulk cargoes in the Port of Long Beach. Located at the Port of Long Beach's Pier S, Berth S101, the terminal covers four hectares and includes 213.4 meters of berths with alongside depth of 11 meters. The terminal is served by a dedicated pump and piping system to move products to/from ships, barges, railcars, and tank trucks. It has storage capacity for 15 million gallons of product.



The City of Long Beach is a huge port city with a beautiful coastline. Located on the southeast edge of Los Angeles County, it contains everything from exclusive and affluent neighborhoods to large industrial areas. With immigrants from all over the world, the Port of Long Beach is a culturally diverse city that feels more like an East Coast blue-collar city than chic coastal California. While it is not well-known as a tourist destination, the Port of Long Beach is close to many Southern California attractions. Cruise passengers will more likely travel through the Port of Los Angeles. Despite its highly-competitive neighbors, the Port of Long Beach has some tourist attractions that are world-class. For details on the things to see and do in the Port of Long Beach, please visit the city's Convention and Visitors Bureau website.
Being adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, the Port of Long Beach enjoys moderate temperatures and wonderful weather throughout the year. During the summer, fog and low clouds are common overnight and in the morning. In the afternoons, the sea breeze keeps it cool despite high temperatures. Rain falls during the winter, but the Port of Long Beach receives less rain than many nearby locations near the San Gabriel and San Bernardino mountains.

The Port of Long Beach's Aquarium of the Pacific is one of the biggest and most modern aquariums in the United States. With 19 major habitats and 32 focus exhibits, visitors will love viewing almost a thousand marine species from the Pacific Ocean's three major regions: the Northern Pacific, the Tropical Pacific, and Southern/Baja California. At the aquarium, visitors can touch deep-sea legends in Shark Lagoon or hand-feed lorikeets. You can take a Behind-the-Scenes tour or enjoy a Harbor Cruise. The film "Monsters of the Abyss" is a 3D digital animation and adventure of the deep ocean, and "A Fish Story" is a great 3D film for kids.

One of the most popular attractions in the Port of Long Beach is the Queen Mary, the world-famous ocean-liner and World War II troopship that has been restored and docked in the Port of Long Beach since 1967. Visitors can explore the amazing vessel, enjoy a meal, go shopping, luxuriate in the spa, or spend the night in a first class stateroom. More adventurous travelers may want to join the two-hour paranormal shipwalk tour to explore for ghosts and see the "paranormal hotspots" not usually open to the general public.

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